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Journal papers

Pavličev M, Romero R, Mitteroecker P (in press) Evolution of the human pelvis and obstructed labor: New explanations of an old obstetrical dilemma. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

Mitteroecker P (in press) Morphometrics in Evolutionary Developmental Biology. In Nuño de la Rosa, L. & Müller, G.B. (Eds.). Evolutionary Developmental Biology - A Reference Guide (pp. 1–12). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Le Maître A, Mitteroecker P (2019) Multivariate Comparison of Variance in R. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 10(9):1380-1392

Windhager S, Mitteroecker P, Lauc T, Polašek O, Schaefer K (2019) Facial aging trajectories: A shared pattern in men and women is disrupted after menopause  American Journal of Physical Anthropology 169:678–688 

Grunstra NDS, Zachos FE, Herdina AN, Fischer B, Pavlicev M, Mitteroecker P (2019) Humans as inverted bats: A comparative approach to the obstetric conundrum. American Journal of Human Biology 31(2), e23227 pdf

Zaffarini E, Mitteroecker P (2019) Secular changes in body height predict global rates of caesarean section. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 286:20182425

Mitteroecker P (2018) How human bodies are evolving in modern societies. Nature Ecology & Evolution 3, 324-326

van der Geer A, Lyras G, Mitteroecker P, MacPhee R (2018) From Jumbo to Dumbo: Cranial Shape Changes in Elephants and Hippos during Phyletic Dwarfing. Evolutionary Biology 45(3):303-317

Grunstra NDS, Mitteroecker P, Foley RA (2018) A Multivariate Ecogeographic Analysis of Macaque Craniodental Variation. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 166(2):386-400 pdf

Mitteroecker P, Windhager S, Pavlicev M (2017) The cliff edge model predicts intergenerational predisposition to dystocia and Caesarean delivery. PNAS 114(44), 11669–11672 pdf

Coquerelle M, Prados-Frutos JC, Rojo R, Drake AG, Murillo-Gonzalez AJ, Mitteroecker P (2017) The fetal origin of the human chin. Evolutionary Biology 44(3), 295-311

Fischer B, Mitteroecker P (2017) Allometry and sexual dimorphism in the human pelvis. Anatomical Record 300, 698–705 (2017) pdf

Mitteroecker P, Huttegger S, Fischer B, Pavlicev M (2017) Reply to Grossman: The role of natural selection for the increase of Caesarean section rates. PNAS 114(8):E1305

Mayer C, Windhager S, Schaefer K, Mitteroecker P (2017) BMI and WHR are reflected in female facial shape and texture: A geometric morphometric image analysis. PLOS One 12(1): e0169336 pdf

Freudenthaler J, Čelar A, Ritt C, Mitteroecker P (2017) Geometric morphometrics of different malocclusions in lateral skull radiographs. Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics 78, 11-20 pdf 

Pavlicev M, Mitteroecker P, Gonzalez PM, Rolian C, Jamniczky H, Pardo-Manuel Villena F, Marcucio R, Spritz R, Hallgrimsson B (2016) Development Shapes a Consistent Inbreeding Effect in Mouse Crania of Different Line Crosses. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B 326(8), 474–488 

Mitteroecker P, Huttegger S, Fischer B, Pavlicev M (2016) Cliff edge model of obstetric selection in humans. PNAS 113(51):14680-14685 pdf

Bertl M, Bertl K, Wagner M, Gahleitner A, Stavropoulos A, Ulm C, Mitteroecker P (2016) Second Premolar Agenesis is Associated with Mandibular Form: A Geometric Morphometric Analysis of Mandibular Cross-Sections. International Journal of Oral Science 8:254-260 pdf

Mitteroecker P, Fischer B (2016) Adult pelvic shape change is an evolutionary side-effect. PNAS 113(26): E3596

Gonzalez PN, Pavlicev M, Mitteroecker P, Pardo-Manuel de Villena F, Spritz R, Marcucio R, Hallgrímsson B (2016) Genetic Structure of Phenotypic Robustness in the Collaborative Cross Mouse Diallel Panel. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 29(9):1737-51

Mitteroecker P, Cheverud JM, Pavlicev M (2016) Multivariate Analysis of Genotype-Phenotype Association. Genetics 202(4), 1345-1363 link

Fischer B, Mitteroecker P (2016) Reply to Underdown and Oppenheimer: Roles of selection, plasticity, and genetics in the integration of human pelvis shape and head size. PNAS 113(3):E259

Domjanic J, Seidler H, Mitteroecker P (2015) A combined morphometric analysis of foot form and its association with sex, stature, and body mass. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 157(4), 582-91 

Mitteroecker P (2015) Affine invariant analysis of multivariate shape variation, with an example from human craniofacial growth. Proceedings of the The 33rd Leeds Annual Statistical Research Workshop. Mardia KV, Gusnanto A, Nooney C, Voss J (eds.) pdf

Fischer B, Mitteroecker P (2015) Covariation between human pelvis shape, stature, and head size alleviates the obstetric dilemma. PNAS 112(18), 5655-5660

Mitteroecker P (2015) Systems mapping has potential to overcome inherent problems of genetic mapping: Comment on “Mapping complex traits as a dynamic system” by L. Sun and R. Wu. Physics of Life Reviews 13, 190-191

Mitteroecker P, Windhager S, Müller GB, Schaefer S (2015) The morphometrics of “masculinity” in human faces. PLoS One 10(2): e0118374 pdf

Mayer C, Metscher BD, Müller GB, Mitteroecker P (2014) Studying developmental variation with geometric morphometric image analysis (GMIA). PLoS ONE 9(12): e115076 pdf

Chartier M, Jabbour F, Gerber S, Sauquet H, von Balthazar M, Staedler Y, Mitteroecker P, Crane PR, Schönenberger J (2014) The floral morphospace: a modern comparative approach to study angiosperm evolution. New Phytologist 204, 841-853

Čelar AG, Onodera K, Bertl MH, Astl E, Bantleon H-P, Sato S, Mitteroecker P (2014) Geometric morphometric evaluations of a randomised prospective split-mouth study on modes of ligation and reverse curve mechanics. Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research 17(3), 158–169

Windhager S, Schaschl H, Schaefer K, Mitteroecker P, Huber S, Wallner B, M Fieder (2014) Variation at genes influencing facial morphology are not associated with developmental imprecision in human faces. PLoS One 9(6):e99009 pdf

Bookstein FL, Mitteroecker P (2014) Comparing Covariance Matrices by Relative Eigenanalysis, with Applications to Organismal Biology. Evolutionary Biology 41, 336-350 pdf

Ramler D, Mitteroecker P, Shama LNS, Wegner KM, Ahnelt H (2014) Non-linear effects of temperature on body form and developmental canalization in the threespine stickleback. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 27(3), 497-507 pdf

Untersteggaber L, Mitteroecker P, Herler J (2014) Coral architecture affects the form and habitat choice of associated gobiid fishes. Marine Biology 161(3), 521-530

Kerschbaumer M, Mitteroecker P, Sturmbauer C (2014) Evolution of body shape in sympatric versus non-sympatric Tropheus populations of Lake Tanganyika. Heredity 112(2), 89-98

Coquerelle M, Prados-Frutos JC, Rojo R, Mitteroecker P, Bastir M (2013) Short faces, big tongues: Developmental origin of the human chin. PLoS One 8(11), e81287 pdf

Domjanic J, Fieder M, Seidler H, Mitteroecker P (2013) Geometric Morphometric Footprint Analysis of Young Women. Journal of Foot and Ankle Research 6:27 pdf

Mitteroecker P, Gunz P, Windhager S, Schaefer K (2013) A brief review of shape, form, and allometry in geometric morphometrics, with applications to human facial morphology. Hystrix 24(1), 59–66 pdf

Gunz P, Mitteroecker P (2013) Semilandmarks: A method for quantifying curves and surfaces. Hystrix 24(1), 103-109 pdf

Arif S, Hilbrant M, Hopfen C, Almudi I, Nunes MDS, Posnien N, Kuncheria L, Tanaka K, Mitteroecker P, Schlötterer C, McGregor AP (2013) Genetic analysis of differences in eye and face morphology between Drosophila simulans and Drosophila mauritiana. Evolution & Development 15(4):257-267

Coquerelle M, JC Prados-Frutos, Benazzi S, Bookstein FL, Senck S, Mitteroecker P, Weber GW (2013) Infant growth patterns of the mandible in modern humans: a closer exploration of the developmental interactions between the symphyseal bone, the teeth, and the suprahyoid and tongue muscle insertion sites. Journal of Anatomy 222(2), 178-192

Mitteroecker P, Gunz P (2012) Human EvoDevo. Evolutionary Biology 39(4), 443–446 pdf

Mitteroecker P, Gunz P, Neubauer S, Müller GB (2012) How to explore morphological integration in human evolution and development? Evolutionary Biology 39(4), 536–553 pdf

Martínez-Abadías N, Mitteroecker P, Parsons TE, Esparza M, Sjøvold T, Rolian C, Richtsmeier JT, Hallgrímsson B (2012) The Developmental Basis of Quantitative Craniofacial Variation in Humans and Mice. Evolutionary Biology39(4), 554–567 pdf

Handschuh S, Mitteroeker P (2012) Evolution - The Extended Synthesis. A research proposal persuasive enough for the majority of evolutionary biologists? Human Ethology Bulletin 27(1-2), 1-4 pdf

Mitteroecker P, Freudenthaler JW (2012) Geometrische Morphometrie – ein Paradigmenwechsel in der Kieferorthopädie. Informationen aus Orthodontie & Kieferorthopädie 44, 17-22

Posnien N, Hopfen C, Hilbrant M, Womack MM, Murat S, Schönauer A, Herbert S, Nunes MD, Arif S, Breuker CJ, Schlötterer C, Mitteroecker P, McGregor AP (2012) Evolution of Eye Morphology and Rhodopsin Expression in the Drosophila melanogaster Species Subgroup. PLoS ONE 7(5), e37346 link

Huttegger S, Mitteroecker P (2011) Invariance and Meaningfulness in Phenotype spaces. Evolutionary Biology 38, 335-352 pdf

Pellegrini A, Teschler-Nicola M, Bookstein FL, Mitteroecker P (2011) Craniofacial Morphology in Austrian early Bronze Age Populations reflects sex-specific migration patterns. Journal of Anthropological Sciences 89, 139–151 pdf

Frelat MA, Mitteroecker P (2011) Postnatal ontogeny of tibia and femur form in two human populations: A multivariate morphometric analysis. American Journal of Human Biology 23, 796–804 pdf

Coquerelle M, FL Bookstein, J Braga, DJ Halazonetis, GW Weber, Mitteroecker P (2011) Sexual dimorphism of the human mandible and its association with dental development. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 145, 192-202 pdf

Mitteroecker P, Bookstein FL (2011) Linear discrimination, ordination, and the visualization of selection gradients in modern morphometrics. Evolutionary Biology 38, 100-114 pdf

Herler J, Maderbacher M, Mitteroecker P, Postl L, Sturmbauer C. (2010) Sexual dimorphism and population divergence in the Lake Tanganyika cichlid fish genus Tropheus. Frontiers in Zoology 7:4 pdf

Mitteroecker P, Huttegger S (2009) The Concept of Morphospaces in Evolutionary and Developmental Biology: Mathematics and Metaphors. Biological Theory 4(1), 54–67 pdf

Mitteroecker P (2009) The developmental basis of variational modularity: Insights from quantitative genetics, morphometrics, and developmental biology. Evolutionary Biology 36(4), 377–385 pdf

Mitteroecker P, Bookstein FL (2009) The Ontogenetic Trajectory of the Phenotypic Covariance Matrix, with Examples from Craniofacial Shape in Rats and Humans. Evolution 63 (3), 727-737 pdf

Mitteroecker P, Bookstein FL (2009) Examining modularity via partial correlations: A rejoinder to a comment by Paul Magwene. Systematic Biology 58(3):346-348 pdf

Mitteroecker P, Gunz P (2009) Advances in geometric morphometrics. Evolutionary Biology 36(2), 235-247 pdf

Gunz P, Mitteroecker P, Neubauer S, Weber GW, Bookstein FL (2009) Principles for the Virtual Reconstruction of hominin crania. Journal of Human Evolution 57(1), 48-62 pdf

Gunz P, Bookstein FL, Mitteroecker P, Stadlmayr A, Seidler H, Weber GW (2009) Early modern human diversity suggests subdivided population structure and a complex out-of-Africa scenario. PNAS 106(15), 6094–6098 link

Schaefer K, Mitteroecker P, Fink B, Bookstein FL (2009) Psychomorphospace — from biology to perception, and back: Towards an integrated quantification of facial form variation. Biological Theory 4(1), 98–106

Mitteroecker P, Bookstein FL (2008) The evolutionary role of modularity and integration in the hominoid cranium. Evolution 62 (4), 943-958 pdf

Mitteroecker P, Bookstein FL (2007) The Conceptual and Statistical Relationship between Modularity and Morphological Integration. Systematic Biology 56 (5), 818–836 pdf

Bulygina E, Mitteroecker P, Aiello LC (2006) Ontogeny of facial dimorphism and patterns of individual development within one human population. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 131 (3), 432–443 pdf

Manfreda E, Mitteroecker P, Bookstein FL, Schaefer K (2006) Functional morphology of the first cervical vertebra in humans and non-human primates. Anatomical Record, Part B: The New Anatomist 289 (5), 184–194 pdf

Schaefer K, Fink B, Grammer K, Mitteroecker P, Gunz P, Bookstein FL (2006) Female appearance: Facial and bodily attractiveness as shape. Psychology Science 48(2), 187–204

Schaefer K, Lauc T, Mitteroecker P, Gunz P, Bookstein FL (2006) Dental Arch Asymmetry in an Isolated Adriatic Community. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 129 (1), 132–42 pdf

Mitteroecker P, Gunz P, Bookstein FL (2005) Heterochrony and geometric morphometrics: A comparison of cranial growth in Pan paniscus versus Pan troglodytes. Evolution & Development 7, 244–258 pdf

Fink B, Grammer K, Mitteroecker P, Gunz P, Schaefer K, Bookstein FL, Manning JT (2005) Second to fourth digit ratio and face shape. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 272 (1576), 1995–2001 pdf

Schaefer K, Fink B, Mitteroecker P, Neave N, Bookstein FL (2005) Visualizing facial shape regression upon 2nd to 4th digit ratio and testosterone. Collegium Antropologicum 29 (2), 415–419

Mitteroecker P, Gunz P, Bernhard M, Schaefer K, Bookstein FL (2004) Comparison of cranial ontogenetic trajectories among hominoids. Journal of Human Evolution, 46 (6), 679–698 pdf

Mitteroecker P, Gunz P, Weber GW, Bookstein FL (2004) Regional dissociated heterochrony in multivariate analysis. Annals of Anatomy, 186 (5–6), 463–470 pdf

Schaefer K, Mitteroecker P, Gunz P, Bernhard M, Bookstein FL (2004) Craniofacial Dimorphism Patterns and Allometry among Hominoids. Annals of Anatomy, 186 (5–6), 471–478 pdf

Neubauer S, Gunz P, Mitteroecker P, Weber GW (2004). Three-dimensional digital imaging of the partial Australopithecus africanus endocranium MLD 37/38. Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, 55 (4), 271–278

Bookstein FL, Slice DE, Gunz P, Mitteroecker P (2004) Anthropology takes control of morphometrics. Collegium Antropologicum 28:121–32

Grammer K, Fink B, Oberzaucher L, Atzmüller M, Blantar I, Mitteroecker P (2004) The Representation of Self Reported Affect in Body Posture and Body Posture Simulation. Collegium Antropologicum 28:159–174

Bookstein F, Gunz P, Mitteroecker P, Prossinger H, Schaefer K, Seidler H (2003) Cranial integration in Homo reassessed: Morphometrics of the mid-sagittal plane in ontogeny and evolution. Journal of Human Evolution 44:167–187 pdf

Weber GW, Schaefer K, Prossinger H, Gunz P, Mitteroecker P, Seidler H (2001) Virtual anthropology: the digital evolution in anthropological sciences. Journal of Physiological Anthropology and Applied Human Science 20:69–80


Book contributions

Weber GW, Gunz P, Neubauer S, Mitteroecker P, Bookstein FL (2012) Digital South African Fossils: Morphological studies using reference based reconstruction and electronic preparation. African Genesis: Perspectives on Hominin Evolution. Reyolds SC, Gallagher A (eds.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 298-316

Weber GW, Mitteroecker P, Gunz P, Neubauer S, Bookstein FL (2008) Virtual Anthropology and Geometric Morphometrics - paleoanthropological applications and the dissemination of know-how and data. In Advanced Imaging in Biological Anthropology and Bioarchaeology: Acquisition, Analysis and Dissemination. Hoppa R, Nelson A, (ed.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Teschler-Nicola M, Mitteroecker P (2007) Von künstlicher Kopfformung. In Attila und die Hunnen, Historisches Museum der Pfalz, Speyer (ed.). Stuttgart: Theiss.

Weber GW, Gunz P, Mitteroecker P, Stadlmayr A, Bookstein FL, Seidler H (2006) External geometry of Mladec neurocrania compared with anatomically modern humans and Neanderthals. In Early Modern Humans at the Moravian Gate: Mladec Caves and their Remains. Teschler-Nicola M (ed.) New York: Springer.

Gunz P, Mitteroecker P, Bookstein FL (2005) Semilandmarks in three Dimensions. In Modern Morphometrics in Physical Anthropology. Slice D (ed.) Kluwer Press.

Schaefer K, Gunz P, Mitteroecker P, Szikossy I, Prossinger H, Weber GW, Recheis W, Seidler H (2005) The frontal cranial profile of Le Moustier 1. In The Neandertal Adolescent Le Moustier 1 - New Aspects, New Results. Ullrich H (ed.) Berlin: Berliner Beiträge zur Vor- und Frühgeschichte.

Mitteroecker P, Gunz P, Teschler-Nicola M, Weber GW (2004) New Morphometric Methods in Paleopathology: Shape Analysis of a Neolithic Hydrocephalus. Enter the Past: Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology, BAR International Series 1227 (pp. 96–98). Oxford: Archaeopress.

Gunz P, Mitteroecker P, Bookstein FL, Weber GW (2004). Computer-aided reconstruction of incomplete human crania using statistical and geometrical estimation methods. Enter the Past: Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology, BAR International Series 1227 (pp. 92¬¬–94). Oxford: Archaeopress.


Assessment of human preadolescent cranial growth and its implications for human evolution (2001) Master Thesis, Advisors: Fred Bookstein, Horst Seidler.

Evolutionary and developmental morphometrics of the hominoid cranium (2007) Ph.D. Thesis, Advisors: Fred Bookstein, Gerhard Weber, Horst Seidler. pdf

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